Halal is an Arabic word which simply means permitted or lawful. So when we are talking about halal food it means any food that is allowed to be eaten according to Islamic Sharia law.
This means that for any food to be considered halal it must comply with the religious ritual and observance of Sharia law.
O ye who believe! Eat of the good things wherewith We have provided you, and render thanks to Allah if it is (indeed) He whom ye worship (2:172).
O ye who believe! Fulfill your undertakings.The beast of cattle is made lawful unto you (for food) except that which is announced unto you (herein), game being unlawful when ye are on pilgrimage. Lo! Allah ordaineth that which pleaseth Him (5:1)
They ask thee (O Muhammad) what is made lawful for them. Say: (all) good things are made lawful for you. And those beasts and birds of prey which ye have trained as hounds are trained, ye teach them that which Allah taught you; so eat of that which they catch for you and mention Allah's name upon it, and observe your duty to Allah. Lo! Allah is swift to take account (5:4)
This day are (all) good things made lawful for you. The food of those who have received the Scripture is lawful for you, and your food is lawful for them. And so are the virtuous women of the believers and the virtuous women of those who received the Scripture before you (lawful for you) when ye give them their marriage portions and liven with them in honour, not in fornication, nor taking them as secret concubines. Whoso denieth the faith, his work is vain and he will be among the losers in the Hereafter (5:5).
Haram is an Arabic word which simply means unlawful or unallowable. So when we are talking about food it means any food that is not allowed to be eaten according to Islamic Sharia law.
Food can be forbidden in Islam if it includes: blood alcohol meat or any products from a forbidden animal, including pigs and any carnivorous animals or birds of prey meat or any products of an animal which has not been slaughtered in the correct manner in the name of Allah. Under Islamic law (Sharia) it is permissible (halal) to consume items that would otherwise be termed Haram so long as it is a matter of survival and not just an act of disobedience.
He hath forbidden you only carrion, and blood, and swineflesh, and that which hath been immolated to (the name of) any other than Allah. But he who is driven by necessity, neither craving nor transgressing, it is no sin for him. Lo! Allah is Forgiving, Merciful (2:173).
Forbidden unto you (for food) are carrion and blood and swine-flesh, and that which hath been dedicated unto any other than Allah, and the strangled, and the dead through beating, and the dead through falling from a height, and that which hath been killed by (the goring of) horns, and the devoured of wild beasts, saving that which ye make lawful (by the death-stroke), and that which hath been immolated unto idols.
And (forbidden is it) that ye swear by the divining arrows. This is an abomination. This day are those who disbelieve in despair of (ever harming) your religion; so fear them not, fear Me! This day have I perfected your religion for you and completed My favour unto you and have chosen for you as religion Al-Islam. Whoso is forced by hunger, not by will, to sin: (for him) lo! Allah is Forgiving, Merciful (5:3)
And eat not of that whereon Allah's name hath not been mentioned, for lo! it is abomination. Lo! the devils do inspire their minions to dispute with you. But if ye obey them, ye will be in truth idolaters (6:121).
Syubhah in Arabic means questionable or dubious. Any food that is not categorised under Halal or non-Halal is considered Syubhah.
What is Halal is clear. And what is Haram is also clear. And in between those two is a dubious area in which many people do not know about. So whoever distanced himself from it, he has acquitted himself (from blame). And those who fall into it, he has fallen into a state of Haram. - Hadith reported by Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Daud, Ibn Majah and Darimi.
and eat and drink but waste not by extravagance certainly He (Allah) likes not Al-Musrifoon (those who waste by extravagance) - [Al-A'raaf 7:31]
This means that food has been subjected to approved certification systems which guarantee to consumers that nothing in the food has any forbidden components. Halal certificates are issued, for a fee, by a certifying body.
In Singapore, Halal Certification is issued by Islamic Religious Council of Singapore also known as Maglis Ugama Islam Singura (MUIS).
Singapore Malay Chamber of Commerce & Industry (SMCCI) issues "100% Muslim-Owned F&B Establishment".